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Prev Med. 2018 Jul;112:199-206. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.05.001. Epub 2018 May 3.

Colorectal cancer screening in the United States: Trends from 2008 to 2015 and variation by health insurance coverage.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States. Electronic address: demoorjs@mail.nih.gov.
2
Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, United States.
3
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.
4
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States.
5
Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, United States.
6
Information Management Services, Inc., Calverton, MD, United States.
7
Office of Disease Prevention, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Abstract

Regular colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is recommended for reducing CRC incidence and mortality. This paper provides an updated analysis of CRC screening in the United States (US) and examines CRC screening by several features of health insurance coverage. Recommendation-consistent CRC screening was calculated for adults aged 50-75 in 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2015 using data from the National Health Interview Survey. CRC screening prevalence in 2015 was described overall and by sociodemographic subgroups. CRC screening by health insurance coverage was further examined using multivariable logistic regression, stratified by age (50-64 years and 65-75 years) and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, income, time in US, and comorbid conditions. Recommendation-consistent screening increased from 51.6% in 2008 to 58.3% in 2010 (p < 0.001). Use plateaued from 2010 to 2013 but increased to 61.3% in 2015 (p < 0.001). In 2015, adults aged 50-64 years with traditional employer-sponsored private insurance were more likely to be screened (62.2%) than those with traditional private direct purchase plans (50.9%) and the uninsured (24.8%) (p < 0.01, respectively). After multivariable adjustment, differences between traditional employer-sponsored private insurance and the uninsured remained statistically significant. Adults aged 65-75 with Medicare and private insurance were more likely to be screened (76.3%) than those with Medicare, no supplemental insurance (68.8%) or Medicare and Medicaid (65.2%) (p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the differences between Medicare and private insurance and Medicare no supplemental insurance remained statistically significant. CRC screening rates have increased over time, but certain segments of the population, especially the uninsured, continue to screen below recommended levels.

KEYWORDS:

Colorectal cancer; Insurance coverage; Screening

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