Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Clin Pharm. 2018 Jun;40(3):704-711. doi: 10.1007/s11096-018-0642-8. Epub 2018 May 2.

Patient and medication factors associated with preventable medication waste and possibilities for redispensing.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy, Sint Maartenskliniek, Hengstdal 3, 6574 NA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Division Laboratories and Pharmacy, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Pharmacy, Radboud University Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
5
Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
6
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Division Laboratories and Pharmacy, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands. h.gardarsdottir@uu.nl.
7
Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands. h.gardarsdottir@uu.nl.

Abstract

Background Knowledge on factors related to preventable medication waste and waste-reducing interventions, including redispensing unused medications, is needed to maximise effectiveness. Objective To assess patient and medication factors associated with preventable medication waste and possibilities for redispensing unused medications. Setting Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In this cross-sectional study, pharmacy-staff registered patient and medication characteristics of prescription medications returned to 41 Dutch community pharmacies during 1 week in 2014. Medications were classified as preventable waste if the remaining amount could have been prevented and as theoretically eligible for redispensing if the package was unopened, undamaged and ≥ 6 months until the expiry date. Associations were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Main outcome measures Proportion of medications classified as preventable waste and as eligible for redispensing, including factors associated with these medications. Results Overall, 279 persons returned 759 (low-cost) medications, and 39.3% was classified as preventable waste. These medications were more frequently used by men than women (OR; 1.7[1.2-2.3]) and by older (> 65 years) than younger patients (OR; 1.4[1.0-2.0]). Medications dispensed for longer periods were more often unnecessary wasted (1-3 months OR; 1.8[1.1-3.0], > 3 months 3.2[1.5-6.9]). Of all returned medications, 19.1% was eligible for redispensing. These medications were more frequently used by men than women (OR; 1.9[1.3-2.9]). Medications chronically used were more frequently eligible for redispensing than acute use (OR; 2.1[1.0-4.3]), and used for longer periods (1-3 months OR; 4.6[2.3-8.9], > 3 months 7.8[3.3-18.5]). Conclusions Over one-third of waste due to medications returned to community pharmacies can be prevented. One-fifth of returned medications can be redispensed, but this seems less interesting from an economic viewpoint.

KEYWORDS:

Community pharmacy; Medication waste; Pharmacy services; Redispensing; The Netherlands; Unused medications

PMID:
29721736
PMCID:
PMC5984955
DOI:
10.1007/s11096-018-0642-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center