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Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2018 Apr;21(Suppl 1):S57-S69. doi: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_16_18.

Secondary (Symptomatic) Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia.

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Department of Neurology, GB Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India.


Primary trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are uncommon group of headache disorders. These are defined and diagnosed by the criteria given by the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3β version. Over the past few decades, a number of secondary (symptomatic) cases have been described in the literature with headache features indistinguishable from primary TACs. Many structural and other pathologies have been found in these patients that can be causally related to the headaches. This review attempts to critically analyze the existing literature including the new cases published during 2015-2017.


Cluster-like headache; secondary cluster headache; secondary hemicrania continua; secondary paroxysmal hemicrania; secondary short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing/short-lasting unilateral headache attacks with autonomic features; secondary trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias; symptomatic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias

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