Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Can J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan;64(1):39-46. doi: 10.1177/0706743718772516. Epub 2018 May 2.

Cross-Cultural Psychometric Properties of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

Author information

1
1 Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry, Mental Health Centre Ballerup, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
2 Department of Psychology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
3
3 Department of Public Health and Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE::

The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is considered the gold standard measure of depression. The factor structure of the HDRS is generally unstable, but 4 to 8 items appear to form a general depression factor. As transcultural studies of the HDRS have received little attention, and as most of the studies have taken a data-driven approach with a tendency to yield fragmented results, it is not clear if an HDRS general depression factor can also be found in non-Western populations. This is an important issue in deciding on the appropriateness of the scale as a gold standard in transcultural psychiatry.

METHOD::

A systematic review was carried out to compare previously reported factor structures of the HDRS in non-Western cultures. Overlapping clusters across studies were identified and subsequently tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of responses from an independent sample.

RESULTS::

Fourteen relevant studies were identified, 12 of which were obtained. A general depression factor was identified, consisting of the following symptoms: depressed mood, guilt, loss of interests, retardation, suicide, and psychological anxiety. The subsequent CFA analysis supported the fit of this model.

CONCLUSIONS::

This study indicates that a general depression cluster is manifest in responses to the HDRS across cultures. While psychometric properties of the full-length HDRS are still debated, the general depression cluster appears pertinent to the assessment of depression across cultures. We recommend that cross-cultural clinicians and researchers focus on the use of unidimensional depression scales, which are in agreement with this cluster.

KEYWORDS:

Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; cross-cultural; depression; factor structure

PMID:
29719964
PMCID:
PMC6364134
DOI:
10.1177/0706743718772516

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center