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Ostomy Wound Manage. 2018 Apr;64(4):22-29.

A Retrospective Cohort Study to Determine Predictive Factors for Abdominal Wound Disruption Following Colorectal Surgery.

Abstract

Abdominal wound disruption (AWD) is a postoperative complication that increases length of hospital stay, mortality, and cost. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify predictors of AWD, defined in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program User Guide as a spontaneous reopening of a previously surgically closed (midline) wound that occurs within 30 days after index elective surgery in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2006-2012) were searched, supplemented by institutional review board-approved chart review. Patients were identified using Current Procedural Terminology codes for open and laparoscopic abdominal colorectal procedures. Data were collected to predefined worksheets and entered into a statistical analysis program and included demographics; comorbidities; pre- and postoperative laboratory tests including white blood count, blood glucose, and albumin levels; date and type of procedure; wound classification; postoperative complication rate; type of access; time to disruption; surgical site infection (SSI); and use of the SSI intervention/prevention bundle. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was utilized to compare independent continuous variables between the groups, and Fisher's exact test was utilized to compare categorical variables. Variables with a P value <.2 at univariate logistic regression were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Time-to-event variables were compared using Cox regression analysis. Of the 690 patients included in the study, 16 (2.3%) developed an AWD. Mean age was 61.9 ± 15.3 years and 61.3 ± 15.0 years in AWD and non-AWD groups, respectively (P = .704). AWD occurred more frequently in men than women (75% vs. 50%; P = .040) and in patients who did compared to those who did not develop a deep incisional SSI (12.5% vs. 2%; P = .044). Preoperative albumin level was significantly lower in AWD (3.2 ± 0.8 vs. 3.8 ± 0.7; P = .006), as well as the proportion of post-bundle implementation (18.75% vs. 65.7%; P = .041). No significant differences were observed for any of the other variables examined. Per multivariate analysis, male gender (P = .05), absence of SSI bundle (P = .026), and hypoalbuminemia (P = .01) were independent predictors of AWD after elective colorectal resections. Time to AWD was significantly shorter in patients without SSI (P <.001). Results indicate implementation of the SSI bundle decreased AWD rates. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

PMID:
29718814

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