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J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 14;218(6):922-926. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy244.

Increased Systemic Inflammation and Gut Permeability Among Women With Treated HIV Infection in Rural Uganda.

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Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda.
University of Vermont, Burlington.
University of California, San Francisco.
Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
University of Virginia, Charlottesville.


In a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and age- and sex-matched HIV-uninfected comparators, we assessed soluble CD14 (sCD14), sCD163, interleukin 6, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFAPB), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. The median age was 51 years. Among HIV-positive individuals, the median antiretroviral therapy (ART) duration was 7 years, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 433 cells/μL, and 86% had an undetectable viral load. Although HIV-positive individuals had higher sCD14, IFABP, and hs-CRP levels, we found evidence of interaction by sex, such that HIV-positive women had greater differences from HIV-negative women, compared with differences between HIV-positive men and HIV-negative men. In models restricted to HIV-positive individuals, women had higher levels of all 5 biomarkers than men.

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