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Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Jul;39(5):414-422. doi: 10.1002/bem.22128. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Numerical evaluation of human exposure to WiMax patch antenna in tablet or laptop.

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Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
Research Center "E. Piaggio," School of Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
Fondazione CNR-Regione Toscana, "G. Monasterio," Pisa, Italy.
Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy.


The use of wireless communication devices, such as tablets or laptops, is increasing among children. Only a few studies assess specific energy absorption rate (SAR) due to exposure from wireless-enabled tablets and laptops, in particular with Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) technology. This paper reports the estimation of the interaction between an E-shaped patch antenna (3.5 GHz) and human models, by means of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Specifically, four different human models (young adult male, young adult female, pre-teenager female, male child) in different exposure conditions (antenna at different distances from the human model, in different positions, and orientations) were considered and whole-body, 10 and 1 g local SAR and magnetic field value (Bmax) were evaluated. From our results, in some worst-case scenarios involving male and female children's exposure, the maximum radiofrequency energy absorption (hot spots) is located in more sensitive organs such as eye, genitals, and breast. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:414-422, 2018.


FDTD; RF exposure; SAR; WiMax; virtual population; wireless communication device

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