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Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2018 Sep;12(5):823-827. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.04.030. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Metabolic syndrome marks early risk for cognitive decline with APOE4 gene variation: A case study.

Author information

1
Human Bioenergetics & Applied Health Science, Bethel University, MN, USA. Electronic address: Dab93939@bethel.edu.
2
Doctorate of Behavioral Health Sciences, Human Bioenergetics & Applied Health Science, Bethel University, MN, USA. Electronic address: Kelly-gibas@bethel.edu.

Abstract

A vast amount of research has been done on the APOE4 genetic marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its connection to metabolic processes associated with peripheral insulin resistance and cerebral glucose metabolism is still relatively unknown. The APOE4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, particularly in individuals who have inherited two copies of the gene (Zhao et al., 2017). In this case study, a 38 year old male with metabolic syndrome (MetS), the APOE4 gene, early stage memory problems and a family history of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) was placed on a ketogenic diet combined with high intensity interval training (HIIT) for 10 weeks. The primary intervention goal was reduce insulin defect, impaired cerebral and peripheral insulin signaling, associated with metabolic syndrome. Recent research demonstrates that insulin defect competes for space with APOE4 in brain cells, thus exacerbating amyloid pathology (Zhao et al., 2017). Primary biomarkers for metabolic syndrome were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks. The MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) was administered at baseline and after 10 weeks. The results were statistically significant. The HOMA-IR (homeostatic measure of insulin resistance) decreased by 59% from 4.3 to 1.8. The triglyceride/HDL ratio decreased by 77% from 14.7 to 3.4. Fasting triglycerides were reduced from 573 mg/dL to 167 mg/dL (71% reduction); VLDL decreased from 114.6 mg/dL to 33.4 mg/dL (71% decrease); and fasting insulin was reduced by 55% from 15.6 mU/L to 7.1 mU/L. The baseline MoCA score was 22/30; post treatment score was 30/30. If APOEE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's Disease, then implementing a ketogenic diet and high intensity exercise could essentially turn "off" the effects of this APOE4 gene earlier in life for prevention of future neurodegeneration.

KEYWORDS:

APOE4; Alzheimer’s disease; HIIT; Ketogenic diet; Metabolic syndrome

PMID:
29706312
DOI:
10.1016/j.dsx.2018.04.030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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