Send to

Choose Destination
Chemosphere. 2018 Aug;205:253-259. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.04.097. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

TBT is still a matter of concern in Peru.

Author information

Instituto Do Mar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Silva Jardim, 136 - Vila Matias, Santos, SP, 11015-020, Brazil. Electronic address:
Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad animal Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Jr. Carlos Gonzáles 285 Jr. Rio de Chepén s/n Urb. Bravo Chico. El Agustino, Peru.
Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia Aquática, Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande, Av. Italia, km 8, Rio Grande, RS, 96203-900, Brazil.


Tributyltin (TBT) environmental concentrations as well as imposex levels have been declining in several coastal areas worldwide. However, recent studies have shown that TBT contamination is still an important issue along some Latin American coastal areas. Thus, the incidence of imposex and butyltin compounds (BTs) in sediments and gastropod tissues was spatially and temporally (2009 and 2012) appraised in Lima (Peru) along potential TBT sources (harbors and marinas). Despite the general pattern of reduction close to Callao harbor, a clear increment in the levels of imposex (RPLI = 0.0 to 8.4 and 0.0 to 28.4/VDSI = 0.0 to 3.3 and 0.0 to 3.5) and TBT in tissues (25 to 112 and 62 to 146 ng Sn g-1) of Thaisella chocolata were seen from 2009 to 2012 in two sampling sites, respectively, located nearby a newly established marina. Thus, despite the international restrictions on the use of TBT-based antifouling paints are apparently reducing the inputs at international harbors, the present study clearly shows that marinas are still acting as important sources of TBT to the study area due possibly to the lack of legal restrictions on production, trading and/or use of TBT. The present findings reinforce what has been seen along many other Latin American coastal areas.


Antifouling; Fresh TBT input; Imposex; Temporal trend; Thaisella chocolata

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center