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Food Chem. 2018 Sep 15;260:193-199. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.114. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Ruminant meat and milk contain δ-valerobetaine, another precursor of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) like γ-butyrobetaine.

Author information

1
Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biofisica e Patologia Generale, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via L. De Crecchio 7, 80138 Napoli, Italy. Electronic address: luigi.servillo@unicampania.it.
2
Dipartimento di Biochimica, Biofisica e Patologia Generale, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via L. De Crecchio 7, 80138 Napoli, Italy.
3
Stazione Sperimentale per le Industrie delle Essenze e dei derivati dagli Agrumi, Azienda Speciale della Camera di Commercio di Reggio Calabria, Via Generale Tommasini 2, 89127 Reggio Calabria, Italy.
4
Stazione Sperimentale per le Industrie delle Essenze e dei derivati dagli Agrumi, Azienda Speciale della Camera di Commercio di Reggio Calabria, Via Generale Tommasini 2, 89127 Reggio Calabria, Italy; Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico, Via Molise 2, Roma, Italy; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e ProdALscarl, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.
5
Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria e Produzioni Animali, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy.

Abstract

Quaternary ammonium compounds containing N-trimethylamino moiety, such as choline derivatives and carnitine, abundant in meat and dairy products, are metabolic precursors of trimethylamine (TMA). A similar fate is reported for Nε-trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. With the aim at investigating the metabolic profile of such metabolites in most employed animal dietary sources, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses on ruminant and non-ruminant milk and meat were performed. Results demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of δ-valerobetaine, occurring at levels higher than γ-butyrobetaine in all ruminant samples compared to non-ruminants. Demonstration of δ-valerobetaine metabolic origin, surprisingly, showed that it originates from rumen through the transformation of dietary Nε-trimethyllysine. These results highlight our previous findings showing the ubiquity of free Nε-trimethyllysine in vegetable kingdom. Furthermore, δ-valerobetaine, similarly to γ-butyrobetaine, can be degraded by host gut microbiota producing TMA, precursor of the proatherogenic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), unveiling its possible role in the biosynthetic route of TMAO.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular risk; Meat; Milk; N(ε)-Trimethyllysine; TMAO; Trimethylamine; Trimethylamine N-oxide; Valine betaine; γ-Butyrobetaine; δ-Valerobetaine

PMID:
29699662
DOI:
10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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