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Nutr Diabetes. 2018 Apr 25;8(1):19. doi: 10.1038/s41387-018-0031-3.

High orange juice consumption with or in-between three meals a day differently affects energy balance in healthy subjects.

Author information

1
Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
2
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Sciences, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.
3
Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
4
Biological Science Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
5
Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. abosyw@nutrition.uni-kiel.de.
6
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Sciences, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany. abosyw@nutrition.uni-kiel.de.

Abstract

Sugar-containing beverages like orange juice can be a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes although the underlying mechanisms are less clear. We aimed to investigate if intake of orange juice with or in-between meals differently affects energy balance or metabolic risk. Twenty-six healthy adults (24.7 ± 3.2 y; BMI 23.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2) participated in a 4-week cross-over intervention and consumed orange juice (20% of energy requirement) either together with 3 meals/d (WM) or in-between 3 meals/d (BM) at ad libitum energy intake. Basal and postprandial insulin sensitivity (primary outcome), daylong glycaemia, glucose variability and insulin secretion were assessed. Body fat mass was measured by air-displacement plethysmography. After BM-intervention, fat mass increased (+1.0 ± 1.8 kg; p < 0.05) and postprandial insulin sensitivity tended to decrease (ΔMatsudaISI: -0.89 ± 2.3; p = 0.06). By contrast, after WM-intervention fat mass and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) decreased (-0.30 ± 0.65 kg; -2.50 ± 3.94; both p < 0.05), whereas glucose variability was higher (ΔMAGE: +0.45 ± 0.59, p < 0.05). Daylong glycaemia, insulin secretion, changes in basal insulin sensitivity, and triglycerides did not differ between WM- and BM-interventions (all p > 0.05). In young healthy adults, a conventional 3-meal structure with orange juice consumed together with meals had a favorable impact on energy balance, whereas juice consumption in-between meals may contribute to a gain in body fat and adverse metabolic effects.

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