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Nutr Diabetes. 2018 Apr 25;8(1):25. doi: 10.1038/s41387-018-0029-x.

Dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes among Ghanaian migrants in Europe and their compatriots in Ghana: the RODAM study.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany. cecilia.galbete@dife.de.
2
Department of Public Health, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Julius Global Health, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
4
Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
5
Regional Institute for Population Studies, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
6
Department of Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
7
Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Charité - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
8
Department of Global and International Health, School of Public Health, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
9
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Charité - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
10
Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal, Germany.
11
Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

We aimed to study the associations of dietary patterns (DPs) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Ghanaian adults.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

In the multi-centre, cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants) study (n = 4543), three overall DPs ("mixed", "rice, pasta, meat and fish," and "roots, tubers and plantain") and two site-specific DPs per study site (rural Ghana, urban Ghana and Europe) were identified by principal component analysis. The DPs-T2D associations were calculated by logistic regression models.

RESULTS:

Higher adherence to the "rice, pasta, meat and fish" DP (characterized by legumes, rice/pasta, meat, fish, cakes/sweets, condiments) was associated with decreased odds of T2D, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, total energy intake and adiposity measures (odds ratio (OR)per 1 SD = 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.92). Similar DPs and T2D associations were discernible in urban Ghana and Europe. In the total study population, neither the "mixed" DP (whole grain cereals, sweet spreads, dairy products, potatoes, vegetables, poultry, coffee/tea, sodas/juices, olive oil) nor the "roots, tubers and plantain" DP (refined cereals, fruits, nuts/seeds, roots/tubers/plantain, fermented maize products, legumes, palm oil, condiments) was associated with T2D. Yet, after the exclusion of individuals with self-reported T2D, the "roots, tubers and plantain" DP was inversely associated with T2D (ORper 1 SD = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.69-1.12).

CONCLUSION:

In this Ghanaian population, DPs characterized by the intake of legumes, fish, meat and confectionery were inversely associated with T2D. The effect of a traditional-oriented diet (typical staples, vegetables and legumes) remains unclear.

PMID:
29695705
PMCID:
PMC5917045
DOI:
10.1038/s41387-018-0029-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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