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Sao Paulo Med J. 2018 Apr 23;136(2):157-164. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.2017.0227121217. Print 2018 Mar-Apr.

Translation and validation of the Brown attention-deficit disorder scale for use in Brazil: identifying cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among samples of substance users and non-users. Cross-cultural validation study.

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Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.



The Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) was developed as a self-report assessment that was designed to screen for presence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to translate and validate the adult self-report BADDS for use in Brazil.


Cross-cultural validation study conducted in an addiction unit at a public university hospital.


This study included a control group (n = 100) and a drug-user group (n = 100). Both groups included subjects aged 18 to 60 years old. The control group had no prior diagnosis of drug addiction and the drug-user group included participants with a diagnosis of addiction. Each participant answered Brazilian Portuguese translations of both the BADDS and the Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS) questionnaires, in paper-and-pencil format.


The drug-user group scored higher than the control group on both scales. The mean scores on ASRS were 27.26 (standard deviation, SD: 11.99) and 25.85 (SD: 8.65) respectively (P > 0.05). The mean scores on BADDS were 79.56 (SD: 29.61) and 79.31 (SD: 18.09), respectively (P > 0.05). Cronbach's alpha for BADDS was 0.95. BADDS presented fair sensitivity (72% accuracy) and fair specificity (88% accuracy).


This study provides discriminative validity evidence for use of BADDS among Brazilian adults with substance-use disorders.

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