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Indian J Urol. 2018 Apr-Jun;34(2):133-139. doi: 10.4103/iju.IJU_111_17.

A retrospective analysis of complications of laparoscopic left donor nephrectomy using the Kocak's modification of Clavien-Dindo system.

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Department of Urology and Renal Transplant, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.



Kocak described a modification of Clavien-Dindo classification system (CDCS) for reporting procedure-related complications in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN). We used the Kocak modification in grading and reporting the severity of complications in patients who underwent LDN and in evaluating various parameters that predict them.


In all, 1430 patients who underwent left LDN from 2000 to 2016 were included in this study. All data was retrospectively collected and analyzed for complications occurring in the postoperative period. All complications were classified according to the four grades of Kocak-modified CDCS.


124 patients (8.6%) suffered a total of 235 postoperative complications. Most of the complications were Grade I and Grade II (Grade I: 79.5% [n = 187] and Grade II 16.2% [n = 38]), 2.5% of the complications were Grade III (n = 6) and Kocak Grade IVa complications occurred in three patients. There was one death (Grade IVb: 0.4%, overall mortality rate: 0.06%). The incidence of complications was significantly greater for male patients, those with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and if the operating surgeon had ≤ 1 year of experience in performing LDN surgery.


LDN is a safe procedure with low morbidity. The rate of complications is 8.6% and most of these complications are of low grade. The use of a standardized system for reporting the complications of LDN allows appropriate comparison between reported data.

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