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Gastroenterology. 2018 Aug;155(2):501-513. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.04.017. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Disruption of Epithelial HDAC3 in Intestine Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice.

Author information

1
Division of Immunobiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2
Division of Gastroenterology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
3
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
4
Division of Immunobiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio. Electronic address: theresa.alenghat@cchmc.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Intestinal microbiota modulate metabolism and associate closely with epithelial cells in the intestine. In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) integrates microbiota-derived signals to control intestinal homeostasis. We investigated whether HDAC3 in IECs regulates metabolism and the development of obesity in mice.

METHODS:

Adult C57BL/6 (control) mice and mice with constitutive or inducible IEC-specific disruption of Hdac3 (HDAC3ΔIEC mice) were placed on a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat). We measured body composition, weight, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure. IECs were isolated from small intestine and gene expression, and lipid levels were analyzed. HDAC3 levels were determined in 43 pediatric patient ileal biopsy samples and compared with body weight.

RESULTS:

Control mice fed an HFD gained weight, became obese, and had reduced glucose tolerance with increased serum insulin, whereas HFD-fed HDAC3ΔIEC mice did not develop obesity. Serum levels of triglycerides were reduced in HDAC3ΔIEC mice, and these mice had less liver fat and smaller adipocytes, compared with HFD-fed control mice. HDAC3ΔIEC mice had similar food intake and activity as control mice, but higher energy expenditure because of increased catabolism. IECs from HDAC3ΔIEC mice had altered expression levels of genes that regulate metabolism in response to the microbiota (such as Chka, Mttp, Apoa1, and Pck1) and accumulated triglycerides compared with IECs from control mice. The microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acid butyrate was decreased in obese mice. Butyrate significantly reduced the activity of HDAC3 and increased Pck1 expression in only control IECs. Administration of butyrate to control mice with diet-induced obesity, but not HDAC3ΔIEC mice, led to significant weight loss. Disruption of HDAC3 in IECs of mice after they became obese led to weight loss and improved metabolic profile. Levels of HDAC3 in intestinal biopsy samples correlated with patient weight.

CONCLUSIONS:

We found that epithelial HDAC3 promotes development of diet-induced obesity in studies of mice and that butyrate reduces activity of HDAC3 in IECs to prevent diet-induced obesity. This pathway might be manipulated to prevent or reduce obesity-associated disease.

KEYWORDS:

Epigenetics; Gene Regulation; Mouse Model; Overweight

PMID:
29689264
PMCID:
PMC6067972
[Available on 2019-08-01]
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2018.04.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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