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AIDS. 2018 Jun 19;32(10):1333-1342. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001818.

Benefits and harms of lung cancer screening in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ cell count at least 500 cells/μl.

Author information

1
Institute for Technology Assessment, Massachusetts General Hospital.
2
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Division of General Internal Medicine.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.
5
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California.
6
Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
7
VA Connecticut Healthcare System, New Haven.
8
School of Medicine, Yale University, West Haven, Connecticut.
9
Department of Population Health, New York University, New York, New York.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Lung cancer is the leading cause of non-AIDS-defining cancer deaths among HIV-infected individuals. Although lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is endorsed by multiple national organizations, whether HIV-infected individuals would have similar benefit as uninfected individuals from lung cancer screening is unknown. Our objective was to determine the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening among HIV-infected individuals.

DESIGN:

We modified an existing simulation model, the Lung Cancer Policy Model, for HIV-infected patients.

DATA SOURCES:

Veterans Aging Cohort Study, Kaiser Permanente Northern California HIV Cohort, and medical literature.

TARGET POPULATION:

HIV-infected current and former smokers.

TIME HORIZON:

Lifetime.

PERSPECTIVE:

Population.

INTERVENTION:

Annual LDCT screening from ages 45, 50, or 55 until ages 72 or 77 years.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Benefits assessed included lung cancer mortality reduction and life-years gained; harms assessed included numbers of LDCT examinations, false-positive results, and overdiagnosed cases.

RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS:

For HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell count at least 500 cells/μl and 100% antiretroviral therapy adherence, screening using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services criteria (age 55-77, 30 pack-years of smoking, current smoker or quit within 15 years of screening) would reduce lung cancer mortality by 18.9%, similar to the mortality reduction of uninfected individuals. Alternative screening strategies utilizing lower screening age and/or pack-years criteria increase mortality reduction, but require more LDCT examinations.

LIMITATIONS:

Strategies assumed 100% screening adherence.

CONCLUSION:

Lung cancer screening reduces mortality in HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell count at least 500 cells/μl, with a number of efficient strategies for eligibility, including the current Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services criteria.

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