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Hepatology. 2018 Nov;68(5):1695-1709. doi: 10.1002/hep.30054. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Hepatitis B Virus Evasion From Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate-Adenosine Monophosphate Synthase Sensing in Human Hepatocytes.

Author information

1
Université de Strasbourg, Inserm, Institut de Recherche sur les Maladies Virales et Hépatiques UMRS_1110, Strasbourg, France.
2
Inserm, U1052, Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL), Université de Lyon (UCBL1), CNRS UMR_5286, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.
3
Pôle Hépato-Digestif, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
4
Immunity and Cancer Department, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Paris, France.
5
Inserm, U932, Paris, France.
6
Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Biocev, Charles University; Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, CAS, IOCB & Gilead Research Center, Prague, Czech Republic.
7
Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Cell Circuits Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA.

Abstract

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cancer worldwide. The mechanisms of viral genome sensing and the evasion of innate immune responses by HBV infection are still poorly understood. Recently, the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) was identified as a DNA sensor. In this study, we investigated the functional role of cGAS in sensing HBV infection and elucidate the mechanisms of viral evasion. We performed functional studies including loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments combined with cGAS effector gene expression profiling in an infectious cell culture model, primary human hepatocytes, and HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice. Here, we show that cGAS is expressed in the human liver, primary human hepatocytes, and human liver chimeric mice. While naked relaxed-circular HBV DNA is sensed in a cGAS-dependent manner in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes, host cell recognition of viral nucleic acids is abolished during HBV infection, suggesting escape from sensing, likely during packaging of the genome into the viral capsid. While the hepatocyte cGAS pathway is functionally active, as shown by reduction of viral covalently closed circular DNA levels in gain-of-function studies, HBV infection suppressed cGAS expression and function in cell culture models and humanized mice. Conclusion: HBV exploits multiple strategies to evade sensing and antiviral activity of cGAS and its effector pathways.

PMID:
29679386
PMCID:
PMC6195855
[Available on 2019-11-01]
DOI:
10.1002/hep.30054
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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