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J Med Internet Res. 2018 Apr 20;20(4):e10143. doi: 10.2196/10143.

Trajectories of 12-Month Usage Patterns for Two Smoking Cessation Websites: Exploring How Users Engage Over Time.

Author information

1
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.
3
Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Little is known about how individuals engage with electronic health (eHealth) interventions over time and whether this engagement predicts health outcomes.

OBJECTIVE:

The objectives of this study, by using the example of a specific type of eHealth intervention (ie, websites for smoking cessation), were to determine (1) distinct groups of log-in trajectories over a 12-month period, (2) their association with smoking cessation, and (3) baseline user characteristics that predict trajectory group membership.

METHODS:

We conducted a functional clustering analysis of 365 consecutive days of log-in data from both arms of a large (N=2637) randomized trial of 2 website interventions for smoking cessation (WebQuit and Smokefree), with a primary outcome of 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 12 months. We conducted analyses for each website separately.

RESULTS:

A total of 3 distinct trajectory groups emerged for each website. For WebQuit, participants were clustered into 3 groups: 1-week users (682/1240, 55.00% of the sample), 5-week users (399/1240, 32.18%), and 52-week users (159/1240, 12.82%). Compared with the 1-week users, the 5- and 52-week users had 57% higher odds (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.17; P=.007) and 124% higher odds (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.45-3.43; P<.001), respectively, of being abstinent at 12 months. Smokefree users were clustered into 3 groups: 1-week users (645/1309, 49.27% of the sample), 4-week users (395/1309, 30.18%), and 5-week users (269/1309, 20.55%). Compared with the 1-week users, 5-week users (but not 4-week users; P=.99) had 48% higher odds (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.05-2.07; P=.02) of being abstinent at 12 months. In general, the WebQuit intervention had a greater number of weekly log-ins within each of the 3 trajectory groups as compared with those of the Smokefree intervention. Baseline characteristics associated with trajectory group membership varied between websites.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patterns of 1-, 4-, and 5-week usage of websites may be common for how people engage in eHealth interventions. The 5-week usage of either website, and 52-week usage only of WebQuit, predicted a higher odds of quitting smoking. Strategies to increase eHealth intervention engagement for 4 more weeks (ie, from 1 week to 5 weeks) could be highly cost effective.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01812278; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01812278 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6yPO2OIKR).

KEYWORDS:

acceptance and commitment therapy; eHealth; engagement; patient participation; smokefree.gov; smoking; smoking cessation; telemedicine; tobacco; tobacco use cessation; trajectories; websites

PMID:
29678799
PMCID:
PMC5935807
DOI:
10.2196/10143
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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