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Cult Health Sex. 2018 Apr 20:1-17. doi: 10.1080/13691058.2018.1459846. [Epub ahead of print]

Attitudes towards same-sex parenting in Italy: the influence of traditional gender ideology.

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a Department of Social and Developmental Psychology , Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
f Department of Human Development and Family Sciences and the Population Research Center , University of Texas at Austin , Austin , USA.
b Department of Clinical and Dynamic Psychology , Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
c Department of Humanities and Social Sciences , University of Cassino , Cassino , Italy.
d Department of Psychology , University of Liège , Liège , Belgium.
g Department of Psychology Sciences , Université Libre de Bruxelles , Bruxelles , Belgium.
e California School of Professional Psychology , Alliant International University , San Francisco , USA.


This study aimed to examine the role of gender ideology, religiosity and political conservatism on attitudes toward same-sex parenting in Italy at a time when same-sex parent families are undergoing attacks from ideological campaigns opposing non-traditional gender roles and families. We collected data from 4,187 heterosexual respondents about attitudes towards two-father and two-mother parenting, homonegativity, attitudes toward traditional masculinity and femininity, religious involvement and political conservatism. We conducted multiple group structural equation model analyses to test whether sex moderated any of the estimated associations among variables. Results showed that traditional beliefs about femininity were directly associated with negative attitudes towards two-mother and two-father parenting, while traditional beliefs about masculinity had a significant direct effect only on two-father parenting. Homonegativity partially mediated the association between religiosity, political conservatism and traditional beliefs about masculinity and femininity on negative attitudes toward both types of same-sex parenting. Gender differences were found for the indirect effects of political conservatism and religiosity on attitudes towards same-sex parenting. The theoretical contributions and implications of the findings are discussed.


Italy; LGBT; gender ideology; homophobia; religion; same-sex parenting

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