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J Appl Microbiol. 2018 Sep;125(3):710-723. doi: 10.1111/jam.13889. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Effects of natural products on several stages of the spore cycle of Clostridium difficile in vitro.

Author information

1
School of Biomedical Sciences (M504), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia.
2
Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands, WA, Australia.
3
School of Veterinary & Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia.
4
School of Medical & Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

Abstract

AIMS:

To investigate the effect of natural products on the spore cycle of Clostridium difficile in vitro.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Twenty-two natural products were investigated using four C. difficile strains. Effects on sporulation, determined using microscopy and a conventional spore recovery assay, showed that fresh onion bulb extract (6·3% v v-1 ) and coconut oil (8% v v-1 ) inhibited sporulation in all four isolates by 66-86% and 51-88%, respectively, compared to untreated controls. Fresh ginger rhizome extract (25% v v-1 ) was also inhibitory, although to a lesser extent. Using a standard spore germination and outgrowth assay, germination was unaffected by the 22 products, whereas outgrowth was significantly reduced by artichoke extract (18·8 mg ml-1 ), fresh onion bulb extract (25% v v-1 ), Leptospermum honeys (8% w v-1 ) and allicin (75 mg ml-1 ; P < 0·01). Sporicidal activity, investigated using a standard plate recovery assay, was minimal.

CONCLUSIONS:

Three of the 22 natural products (13%) showed inhibitory effects on sporulation of C. difficile and six products (27%) reduced vegetative outgrowth of C. difficile.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:

This study shows the potential of natural products to inhibit different stages of C. difficile sporulation and encourages further investigation in this field.

KEYWORDS:

Clostridium difficile spores; alternative therapy; germination; outgrowth; sporulation

PMID:
29675852
DOI:
10.1111/jam.13889
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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