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J Adhes Dent. 2018;20(2):133-142. doi: 10.3290/j.jad.a40305.

Biomechanical Effect of Ferrule on Incisors Restored with a Fiberglass Post and Lithium-Disilicate Ceramic Crown after Thermal Cycling and Fatigue Loading.



To evaluate the biomechanics of endodontically treated incisors restored with a fiberglass post and a CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate ceramic crown with/without a ferrule after thermal and mechanical aging.


Twenty bovine incisors were divided into two groups (n = 10): 1. Fe, with a ferrule of 2 mm, and 2. NFe, without a ferrule. After endodontic treatment, the teeth were restored using a fiberglass post (Exacto 3, Angelus) and composite core (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent). They then received a CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate ceramic crown (IPS e.max CAD) luted using a self-adhesive composite (RelyX Unicem 2, 3M Oral Care). All specimens were subjected to 20,000 thermocycles and 2,400,000 simulated chewing cycles. Ceramic crown and root dentin strains (µS) were measured using strain gauges (n = 10) during 100-N loading before and after the thermal and mechanical aging, and upon fracture loading. The specimens were subsequently loaded to fracture (N). The stress distribution was analyzed using 3D individualized finite-element models created by micro-CT of experimental samples (n = 3). Strain data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Fracture resistance was analyzed using Student's t-test and fracture mode was analyzed using the chi-squared test (α = 0.05).


After aging, NFe exhibited significantly higher root dentin deformation (buccal: 1248.0 ± 282.8; lingual: 516.2 ± 195.0; p < 0.001) than Fe (buccal, 554.0 ± 233.8; lingual: 311.8 ± 159.0; p < 0.001). The deformation measured on ceramic crowns was not influenced by ferrule presence or aging process. Significantly higher fracture resistance (N) was observed for the Fe (1099.6 ± 214.8) than the NFe group (675.3 ± 113.8) (p < 0.001). The NFe group revealed a lower fracture resistance:root strain ratio than did the Fe group. The stress levels on root dentin and fiberglass were lower for the Fe group.


The NFe group showed increased root dentin strain after the aging process. The Fe group revealed higher fracture resistance, lower stress concentration on root dentin and fewer catastrophic fractures.


CAD/CAM ceramic crown; fatigue; ferrule; fiberglass post; finite element analysis; fracture resistance; strain-gauge test; thermal cycling


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