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PLoS One. 2018 Apr 19;13(4):e0196181. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196181. eCollection 2018.

RUNX1-PDCD6 fusion resulting from a novel t(5;21)(p15;q22) chromosome translocation in myelodysplastic syndrome secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

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Section for Cancer Cytogenetics, Institute for Cancer Genetics and Informatics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Department of Haematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.


Leukemic cells often carry chromosome aberrations which generate chimeric genes of pathogenetic, diagnostic, and prognostic importance. New rearrangements giving rise to novel fusion genes define hitherto unrecognized genetic leukemia subgroups. G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and molecular genetic analyses were done on bone marrow cells from a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and secondary myelodysplasia. The G-banding analysis revealed the karyotype 46,XX,del(21)(q22)[9]/46,XX[2]. FISH on metaphase spreads with a RUNX1 break apart probe demonstrated that part of RUNX1 (from 21q22) had moved to chromosome band 5p15. RNA sequencing showed in-frame fusion of RUNX1 with PDCD6 (from 5p15), something that was verified by RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing. Further FISH analyses with PDCD6 and RUNX1 home-made break apart/double fusion probes showed a red signal (PDCD6) on chromosome 5, a green signal on chromosome 21 (RUNX1), and two yellow fusion signals, one on der(5) and the other on der(21). Reassessment of the G-banding preparations in light of the FISH and RNA-sequencing data thus yielded the karyotype 46,XX,t(5;21)(p15;q22)[9]/46,XX[2]. The t(5;21)(p15;q22)/RUNX1-PDCD6 was detected only by performing molecular studies of the leukemic cells, but should be sought after also in other leukemic/myelodysplastic cases with del(21q).

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