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J Diet Suppl. 2018 Apr 19:1-11. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2018.1456501. [Epub ahead of print]

PILATES (Physical Activity and Diet Survey): An Italian Self-Administered Questionnaire Evaluating Diet Habits of Gym-Goers. Validation Process.

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a School of Specialization in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Department of Experimental Medicine , University of Perugia , Perugia , Italy.
b Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV - IRCCS , Padua , Italy.
c Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences , University of Perugia , Perugia , Italy.


PILATES study aims are to assess the main characteristics related to food habits, diet behaviors, and nutrition knowledge and how and where gym-goers get information on dietary supplementation. We present evidence for the reliability, feasibility, and construct validity of the PILATES questionnaire. Cohen's kappa statistic (k) for dichotomous variables was used to assess the agreement between the two administrations (interrater agreement). The nutrient composition and energy of food were derived from the Food Composition Database for Epidemiological Studies in Italy (Banca Dati di Composizione degli Alimenti per Studi Epidemiologici in Italia - BDA). Because of energy intake, waist circumference and weight are continuous variables; we calculate the agreement between the two interviews using Spearman's rho coefficient (nonparametric measure of rank correlation). An Italian 21-item self-administered questionnaire was designed and pretested on 28 students in food science and human nutrition at the University of Perugia who were enrolled on a voluntary basis. After verifying the feasibility of the questionnaire, pretest evaluation showed a generally high concordance with an 87.32% of agreement and k value = 0.71 ± 0.23. In addition, weight, daily energy intake, and waist circumference confirmed a statistically significant agreement (p <.001, Spearman rho coefficient). PILATES questionnaire is a valid tool to estimate dietary intakes in a fairly simple, cost-effective, and timesaving manner.


food frequency; gym-goers; physical activity; questionnaire; supplementation; validation process

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