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Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2018 Feb 8;2018:3747521. doi: 10.1155/2018/3747521. eCollection 2018.

Clinical Outcomes of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Infections with Susceptibilities among Levofloxacin, Cefepime, and Carbapenems.

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Hendrick Medical Center, 1900 Pine St., Abilene, TX 79601, USA.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Pharmacy, 1718 Pine St., Abilene, TX 79601, USA.



Highly resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are associated with high mortality. Increasing resistance to standard therapy illustrates the need for alternatives when treating resistant organisms, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Enterobacteriaceae.


A retrospective chart review at a community hospital was performed. Patients who developed ESBL-producing infections were included. Patients less than eighteen years old, who were pregnant, or who were incarcerated were excluded. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, ICU length of stay, and hospital length of stay.


113 patients with ESBL-producing infections met the criteria for review. Hospital mortality: carbapenem (16.6%), cefepime (0%), and levofloxacin (15.3%) (p=0.253). ICU mortality: carbapenem (4.5%), cefepime, (0%), and levofloxacin (3.7%) (p=0.616). Mean ICU and hospital length of stay: carbapenem (9.8 ± 16, 12.1 ± 1 days), cefepime (7.8 ± 6, 11.1 ± 10.5 days), and levofloxacin (5.4 ± 4.1, 11.1 ± 10.4 days) (p=0.805, 0.685). No predictors were clearly found between the source of infection and mortality.


Cefepime or levofloxacin can be a potential alternative agent for infections with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and larger clinical trials investigating these outcomes are warranted.

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