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Int J Ment Health Addict. 2018;16(2):377-392. doi: 10.1007/s11469-017-9786-3. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Measurement Invariance of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) Between Australia, the USA, and the UK.

Author information

1University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
2Federation University, Ballarat, Australia.
3Palo Alto University, 1791 Arastradero Rd, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA.
4Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.


The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) is widely used to assess Internet Gaming Disorder behaviors. Investigating cultural limitations and implications in its applicability is imperative. One way to evaluate the cross-cultural feasibility of the measure is through measurement invariance analysis. The present study used Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA) to examine the IGDS9-SF measurement invariance across gamers from Australia, the United States of America (USA), and the United Kingdom (UK). To accomplish this, 171 Australian, 463 USA, and 281 UK gamers completed the IGDS9-SF. Although results supported the one-factor structure of the IGD construct, they indicated cross-country variations in the strength of the relationships between the indicators and their respective factor (i.e., non-invariant loadings of items 1, 2, 5), and that the same scores may not always indicate the same level of IGD severity across the three groups (i.e., non-invariant intercepts for items 1, 5, 7, 9).


Gamers; Gaming addiction; IGD; IGDS9-SF; Internet gaming disorder; Measurement invariance

Conflict of interest statement

Compliance with Ethical StandardsNo funding is reported by the authors.The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.All procedures performed in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.Informed consent was obtained from all the parents and the guardians of the adolescents participating in the study, as well as the individual participants themselves.Authors confirm that this paper has not been either previously published or submitted simultaneously for publication elsewhere.Authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in the present article.

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