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Diagnostics (Basel). 2018 Apr 18;8(2). pii: E26. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics8020026.

Aneuploid CTC and CEC.

Author information

1
Cytelligen, San Diego, CA 92121, USA. plin@cytelligen.com.

Abstract

Conventional circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection technologies are restricted to large tumor cells (> white blood cells (WBCs)), or those unique carcinoma cells with double positive expression of surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for isolation, and intracellular structural protein cytokeratins (CKs) for identification. With respect to detecting the full spectrum of highly heterogeneous circulating rare cells (CRCs), including CTCs and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), it is imperative to develop a strategy systematically coordinating all tri-elements of nucleic acids, biomarker proteins, and cellular morphology, to effectively enrich and comprehensively identify CRCs. Accordingly, a novel strategy integrating subtraction enrichment and immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (SE-iFISH), independent of cell size variation and free of hypotonic damage as well as anti-EpCAM perturbing, has been demonstrated to enable in situ phenotyping multi-protein expression, karyotyping chromosome aneuploidy, and detecting cytogenetic rearrangements of the ALK gene in non-hematologic CRCs. Symbolic non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of both the TP53 gene (P33R) in each single aneuploid CTCs, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) tumor suppressor gene in each examined aneuploid CECs, were identified for the first time across patients with diverse carcinomas. Comprehensive co-detecting observable aneuploid CTCs and CECs by SE-iFISH, along with applicable genomic and/or proteomic single cell molecular profiling, are anticipated to facilitate elucidating how those disparate categories of aneuploid CTCs and CECs cross-talk and functionally interplay with tumor angiogenesis, therapeutic drug resistance, tumor progression, and cancer metastasis.

KEYWORDS:

aneuploidy; circulating rare cells; iFISH; liquid biopsy; molecular diagnostics; programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK); proteomic and genomic profiling of the single CRC; tumor protein p53 (TP53) and CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene mutations; whole genome amplification (WGA) and next generation sequencing (NGS) of the single CTC

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