Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2018 Apr 18;13(4):e0195658. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195658. eCollection 2018.

Age at natural menopause and associated factors in adult women: Findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank study in Zhejiang rural area.

Author information

Department of NCDs Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Dong Cheng District, Beijing, China.
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Haidian District, Beijing, China.
Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.



To investigate the factors associated with age at natural menopause in a large population of Chinese adult women.


This cross-sectional study was part of the baseline survey of China Kadoorie Biobank in Zhejiang Province. A total of 17,076 postmenopausal women were included in the present study. Relevant data of socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and reproductive characteristics were collected. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associated factors of age at natural menopause with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported.


The mean age at natural menopause was 48.94 years, with 3.40% of the women experienced premature menopause and 6.75% early menopause. Younger age, higher education, consumption of meat (1-3 days per week) and increased parity were associated with late menopause. Current smoking, underweight, higher physical activity, consumption of sea food (1-3 days per week), fresh eggs (≥4 days per week), fresh fruits (≥1 day per week), taking vitamins, experiencing severe food shortage, earlier age at menarche and older age at first birth were associated with earlier age at natural menopause.


These results suggest that certain factors involved with socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary and reproductive characteristics are related to the age at natural menopause in Chinese women.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center