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Monash Bioeth Rev. 2018 Jul;35(1-4):50-79. doi: 10.1007/s40592-018-0076-z.

Ethical challenges faced by healthcare professionals who care for suicidal patients: a scoping review.

Saigle V1,2, Racine E3,4,5,6,7.

Author information

1
Neuroethics Research Unit, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, 110 avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, QC, H2W lR7, Canada.
2
Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
3
Neuroethics Research Unit, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, 110 avenue des Pins Ouest, Montreal, QC, H2W lR7, Canada. eric.racine@ircm.qc.ca.
4
Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. eric.racine@ircm.qc.ca.
5
Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada. eric.racine@ircm.qc.ca.
6
Department of Social and Preventative Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada. eric.racine@ircm.qc.ca.
7
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. eric.racine@ircm.qc.ca.

Abstract

For each one of the approximately 800,000 people who die from suicide every year, an additional twenty people attempt suicide. Many of these attempts result in hospitalization or in contact with other healthcare services. However, many personal, educational, and institutional barriers make it difficult for healthcare professionals to care for suicidal individuals. We reviewed literature that discusses suicidal patients in healthcare settings in order to highlight common ethical issues and to identify knowledge gaps. A sample was generated via PubMed using keywords "[(ethics OR *ethic*) AND suicid*] AND [English (Language) OR French (Language)]" (final N = 52), ethics content was extracted according to scoping review methodology, and categorized thematically. We identified three main areas posing ethical challenges for health professionals caring for suicidal individuals and their families. These were: (1) making clinical decisions for patients in acute care or when presented with specific circumstances; (2) issues arising from therapeutic relationships in chronic care, and (3) organizational factors. There is considerable uncertainty about how to resolve ethical issues when caring for someone who is suicidal. The stigma associated with suicide and mental illness, problems associated with risk-benefit assessments, and the fear of being held liable for malpractice should a patient die by suicide were overarching themes present across these three categories. Caring for suicidal patients is clinically and ethically challenging. The current literature highlights the complexity and range of decisions that need to be made. More attention should be paid to the difficulties faced by healthcare professionals and the development of solutions.

KEYWORDS:

Clinical ethics; Ethics; Healthcare services; Prevention; Scoping review; Suicide

PMID:
29667145
DOI:
10.1007/s40592-018-0076-z

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