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J Surg Res. 2018 Jun;226:64-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.01.022. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Factors affecting the caloric and protein intake over time in critically ill trauma patients.

Author information

1
Division of Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles, California; Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.
2
Division of Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address: kinaba@surgery.usc.edu.
3
Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.
4
Division of Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Major trauma leads to increased nutritional requirements. However, little is known about the actual amount of calories and protein administered and the factors affecting the intake over time in critically ill trauma patients.

METHODS:

Prospective study including 100 trauma patients admitted to the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center intensive care unit between March 2014 and October 2014. Inclusion criteria were age > 16 y, surgery at admission, and no oral nutrition. The caloric and protein intake was recorded, and requirements were calculated daily for 28 d. The nutritional intake and the impact of clinical factors on the intake over time were assessed using mixed model analysis.

RESULTS:

The caloric and protein intake significantly increased over time, but the median intake did not meet the median calculated requirements at any time. Multivariable analysis revealed a smaller increase of the nutritional intake over time in patients with an injury severity score > 45, whereas penetrating injury and laparotomy were associated with a higher increase of the intake. Body mass index scores ≥ 30 kg/m2, traumatic brain injury, and gastrointestinal tract injuries were associated with a smaller increase of the caloric intake over time.

CONCLUSIONS:

The median nutritional intake did not meet the median calculated requirements over time. A smaller increase of the nutritional intake over time was found in patients with a higher injury burden, whereas penetrating injury and laparotomy were associated with a higher increase of the intake. Higher body mass index scores, traumatic brain injury, and gastrointestinal tract injuries were associated with a smaller increase of the caloric intake over time. These clinical factors can help to adjust the nutritional support in critically ill trauma patients.

KEYWORDS:

Caloric requirements; Critical illness; Multiple trauma; Nutritional support; Prospective study; Protein requirements

PMID:
29661290
DOI:
10.1016/j.jss.2018.01.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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