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Can Bull Med Hist. 2018 Spring;35(1):63-93. doi: 10.3138/cbmh.210-062017. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Psychiatry in American Medical Education: The Case of Harvard's Medical School, 1900-1945.

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Department of History, University of Guelph.


As American psychiatrists moved from the asylum to the private clinic during the early twentieth century, psychiatry acquired a growing presence within medical school curricula. This shift in disciplinary status took place at a time when medical education itself was experiencing a period of reform. By examining medical school registers at Harvard University, records from the Dean's office of Harvard's medical school, and oral histories, this paper examines the rise in prominence of psychiatry in medical education. Three builders of Harvard psychiatry - Elmer E. Southard, C. Macfie Campbell, and Harry C. Solomon - simultaneously sought to mark territory for psychiatry and its relevance. In doing so, they capitalized on three related elements: the fluidity that existed between psychiatry and neurology, the new venues whereby medical students gained training in psychiatry, and the broader role of patrons, professional associations, and certification boards, which sought to expand psychiatry's influence in the social and cultural life of twentieth-century America.


C. Macfie Campbell; Elmer E. Southard; Harry C. Solomon; Harvard University; Université Harvard; enseignement médical; medical education; professional relations; psychiatrie; psychiatry; relations professionnelles

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