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Sci Total Environ. 2018 Sep 1;634:909-921. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.362. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Real-world exhaust temperature profiles of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

Author information

1
University of California at Riverside, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, 1084 Columbia Ave, Riverside, CA 92507, USA. Electronic address: kanok@cert.ucr.edu.
2
University of California at Riverside, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, 1084 Columbia Ave, Riverside, CA 92507, USA. Electronic address: durbin@cert.ucr.edu.
3
University of California at Riverside, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, 1084 Columbia Ave, Riverside, CA 92507, USA. Electronic address: gscora@cert.ucr.edu.
4
University of California at Riverside, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, 1084 Columbia Ave, Riverside, CA 92507, USA. Electronic address: kjohnson@cert.ucr.edu.
5
University of California at Riverside, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, 1084 Columbia Ave, Riverside, CA 92507, USA. Electronic address: dsandez@ece.ucr.edu.
6
University of California at Riverside, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, 1084 Columbia Ave, Riverside, CA 92507, USA. Electronic address: alexvu@cert.ucr.edu.
7
University of California at Riverside, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, 1084 Columbia Ave, Riverside, CA 92507, USA. Electronic address: yjian009@ucr.edu.
8
infoWedge, 4903 Alondra Ct, El Dorado Hills, CA 95762, USA. Electronic address: andrew.burnette@infowedge.com.
9
California Air Resources Board, P.O. Box 2815, Sacramento, CA 95812, USA. Electronic address: syoon@arb.ca.gov.
10
California Air Resources Board, P.O. Box 2815, Sacramento, CA 95812, USA. Electronic address: john.collins@arb.ca.gov.
11
California Air Resources Board, P.O. Box 2815, Sacramento, CA 95812, USA. Electronic address: zhen.dai@arb.ca.gov.
12
US Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 Traverwood Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA. Electronic address: Fulper.Carlr@epa.gov.
13
Eastern Research Group, Inc., 3508 Far West Blvd, Suite 210, Austin, TX 78731, USA. Electronic address: Sandeep.Kishan@erg.com.
14
Eastern Research Group, Inc., 3508 Far West Blvd, Suite 210, Austin, TX 78731, USA. Electronic address: Michael.Sabisch@erg.com.
15
Eastern Research Group, Inc., 3508 Far West Blvd, Suite 210, Austin, TX 78731, USA. Electronic address: doug.jackson@erg.com.

Abstract

On-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a major contributor of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. In the US, many heavy-duty diesel vehicles employ selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to meet the 2010 emission standard for NOx. Typically, SCR needs to be at least 200°C before a significant level of NOx reduction is achieved. However, this SCR temperature requirement may not be met under some real-world operating conditions, such as during cold starts, long idling, or low speed/low engine load driving activities. The frequency of vehicle operation with low SCR temperature varies partly by the vehicle's vocational use. In this study, detailed vehicle and engine activity data were collected from 90 heavy-duty vehicles involved in a range of vocations, including line haul, drayage, construction, agricultural, food distribution, beverage distribution, refuse, public work, and utility repair. The data were used to create real-world SCR temperature and engine load profiles and identify the fraction of vehicle operating time that SCR may not be as effective for NOx control. It is found that the vehicles participated in this study operate with SCR temperature lower than 200°C for 11-70% of the time depending on their vocation type. This implies that real-world NOx control efficiency could deviate from the control efficiency observed during engine certification.

KEYWORDS:

Exhaust temperature; Heavy-duty diesel vehicles; In-use emissions; NO(x) control efficiency; Portable activity measurement system; Selective catalytic reduction

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