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J Nutr. 2018 Apr 1;148(4):542-551. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy002.

The Ossabaw Pig Is a Suitable Translational Model to Evaluate Dietary Patterns and Coronary Artery Disease Risk.

Author information

1
Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA.
2
Diet, Genomics, and Immunology Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD.
3
Department of Parasitology, Sichuan Agricultural University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chengdu, China.
4
Alizée Pathology, Boston, MA.

Abstract

Background:

Animal models that mimic diet-induced human pathogenesis of chronic diseases are of increasing importance in preclinical studies. The Ossabaw pig is an established model for obesity-related metabolic disorders when fed extreme diets in caloric excess.

Objective:

To increase the translational nature of this model, we evaluated the effect of diets resembling 2 human dietary patterns, the Western diet (WD) and the Heart Healthy Diet (HHD), without or with atorvastatin (-S or +S) therapy, on cardiometabolic risk factors and atherosclerosis development.

Methods:

Ossabaw pigs (n = 32; 16 boars and 16 gilts, aged 5-8 wk) were randomized according to a 2 × 2 factorial design into 4 groups (WD-S, WD+S, HHD-S, and HHD+S) and were fed the respective diets for 6 mo. The WD (high in saturated fat, cholesterol, and refined grain) and the HHD (high in unsaturated fat, whole grain, and fruit and vegetables) were isocaloric [38% of energy (%E) from fat, 47%E from carbohydrate, and 15%E from protein]. Body composition was determined by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum fatty acid (FA) profiles by gas chromatography, cardiometabolic risk profile by standard procedures, and degree of atherosclerosis by histopathology.

Results:

Serum FA profiles reflected the predominant dietary FA. Pigs fed the WD had 1- to 4-fold higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with HHD-fed pigs (all P-diet < 0.05). Statin therapy significantly lowered concentrations of LDL cholesterol (-39%), non-HDL cholesterol (-38%), and triglycerides (-6%) (P-statin < 0.02). A greater degree of atheromatous changes (macrophage infiltration, foam cells, fatty streaks) and lesion incidence was documented in the coronary arteries (P-diet < 0.05), as well as 2- to 3-fold higher lipid deposition in the aortic arch or thoracic aorta of WD- compared with HHD-fed pigs (P-diet < 0.001).

Conclusions:

Ossabaw pigs manifested a dyslipidemic and inflammatory profile accompanied by early-stage atherosclerosis when fed a WD compared with an HHD, which was moderately reduced by atorvastatin therapy. This phenotype presents a translational model to examine mechanistic pathways of whole food-based dietary patterns on atherosclerosis development.

PMID:
29659954
PMCID:
PMC6669954
DOI:
10.1093/jn/nxy002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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