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Biomed Res Int. 2018 Feb 13;2018:5410875. doi: 10.1155/2018/5410875. eCollection 2018.

Micrometer-Sized Titanium Particles Induce Aseptic Loosening in Rabbit Knee.

Author information

1
Department of Joint Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China.
2
Department of Sports Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China.
3
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China.
4
Biostatistics Department, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Abstract

Wear debris induced aseptic loosening is the leading cause of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. The complex mechanism of aseptic loosening has been a major issue for introducing effective prevention and treatment methods, so a simplified yet efficient rabbit model was established to address this concern with the use of micrometer-sized titanium particles. 20 New Zealand white rabbits were selected and divided into two groups (control = 10, study = 10). A TKA surgery was then performed for each of them, with implantation of a titanium rod prosthesis which was coated evenly with micrometer-sized titanium in the study group and nothing in the control group, into right femoral medullary cavity. After 12 weeks, all the animals were euthanized and X-ray analyses, H&E staining, Goldner Masson trichrome staining, Von Kossa staining, PCR, and Western blotting of some specific mRNAs and proteins in the interface membrane tissues around the prosthesis were carried out. The implantation of a titanium rod prosthesis coated with 20 μm titanium particles into the femoral medullary cavity of rabbits caused continuous titanium particle stimulation around the prosthesis, effectively inducing osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Titanium particle-induced macrophages produce multiple inflammatory factors able to activate osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathway, resulting in osteolysis while suppressing the function of osteoblasts and reducing bone ingrowth around the prosthesis. This model simulated the implantation and loosening process of an artificial prosthesis, which is an ideal etiological model to study the aseptic prosthetic loosening.

PMID:
29651439
PMCID:
PMC5831897
DOI:
10.1155/2018/5410875
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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