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Genome Res. 2018 May;28(5):689-698. doi: 10.1101/gr.229062.117. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

HNRNPA1 promotes recognition of splice site decoys by U2AF2 in vivo.

Author information

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.
Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.
Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.
Bioo Scientific Corporation, Austin, Texas 78744, USA.
Contributed equally


Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays a major role in expanding the transcript output of human genes. This process is regulated, in part, by the interplay of trans-acting RNA binding proteins (RBPs) with myriad cis-regulatory elements scattered throughout pre-mRNAs. These molecular recognition events are critical for defining the protein-coding sequences (exons) within pre-mRNAs and directing spliceosome assembly on noncoding regions (introns). One of the earliest events in this process is recognition of the 3' splice site (3'ss) by U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2). Splicing regulators, such as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1), influence spliceosome assembly both in vitro and in vivo, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly described on a global scale. HNRNPA1 also promotes proofreading of 3'ss sequences though a direct interaction with the U2AF heterodimer. To determine how HNRNPA1 regulates U2AF-RNA interactions in vivo, we analyzed U2AF2 RNA binding specificity using individual-nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) in control and HNRNPA1 overexpression cells. We observed changes in the distribution of U2AF2 crosslinking sites relative to the 3'ss of alternative cassette exons but not constitutive exons upon HNRNPA1 overexpression. A subset of these events shows a concomitant increase of U2AF2 crosslinking at distal intronic regions, suggesting a shift of U2AF2 to "decoy" binding sites. Of the many noncanonical U2AF2 binding sites, Alu-derived RNA sequences represented one of the most abundant classes of HNRNPA1-dependent decoys. We propose that one way HNRNPA1 regulates exon definition is to modulate the interaction of U2AF2 with decoy or bona fide 3'ss.

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