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ACS Nano. 2018 May 22;12(5):4164-4171. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b00180. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Three-Dimensional Silicon Electronic Systems Fabricated by Compressive Buckling Process.

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Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Chemistry, Neurological Surgery, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Simpson Querrey Institute & Feinberg Medical School, Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics , Northwestern University , Evanston , Illinois 60208 , United States.
Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana , Illinois 61801 , United States.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Materials Science and Engineering , Northwestern University , Evanston , Illinois 60208 , United States.
AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Center for Mechanics and Materials , Tsinghua University , Beijing 100084 , China.
Center for Mechanics and Materials, Center for Flexible Electronics Technology, AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics , Tsinghua University , Beijing 100084 , China.
Department of Electronics Convergence Engineering , Kwangwoon University , Seoul 01897 , Republic of Korea.
Division of Materials Science and Engineering , Hanyang University , Seoul 04763 , Republic of Korea.
Institute for Molecular Engineering , The University of Chicago , Chicago , Illinois 60637 , United States.
Department of Mechanical Engineering , Ajou University , Suwon , 443-749 , Republic of Korea.
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, The Center for Implantable Devices, and Birck Nanotechnology Center , Purdue University , West Lafayette , Indiana 47907 , United States.
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science , Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) , Gwangju 61005 , Republic of Korea.
Department of Robotics Engineering , Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) , Daegu 42988 , Republic of Korea.


Recently developed approaches in deterministic assembly allow for controlled, geometric transformation of two-dimensional structures into complex, engineered three-dimensional layouts. Attractive features include applicability to wide ranging layout designs and dimensions along with the capacity to integrate planar thin film materials and device layouts. The work reported here establishes further capabilities for directly embedding high-performance electronic devices into the resultant 3D constructs based on silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) as the active materials in custom devices or microscale components released from commercial wafer sources. Systematic experimental studies and theoretical analysis illustrate the key ideas through varied 3D architectures, from interconnected bridges and coils to extended chiral structures, each of which embed n-channel Si NM MOSFETs (nMOS), Si NM diodes, and p-channel silicon MOSFETs (pMOS). Examples in stretchable/deformable systems highlight additional features of these platforms. These strategies are immediately applicable to other wide-ranging classes of materials and device technologies that can be rendered in two-dimensional layouts, from systems for energy storage, to photovoltaics, optoelectronics, and others.


mechanical buckling; silicon diode; silicon transistor; three-dimensional electronics

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