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J Periodontol. 2018 Aug;89(8):973-982. doi: 10.1002/JPER.17-0613.

Gingival crevicular fluid and salivary resistin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in obese children with gingivitis.

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Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey.
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın, Turkey.
Section of Molecular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Letters, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey.



This study aimed to evaluate the levels of resistin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva of obese children with gingivitis.


One-hundred and thirty children (65 obese and 65 normal weight; age range 8 to 12 years) were recruited for the study. The children were classified into four subgroups based on their body mass and periodontal status; 1) obese children with gingivitis (OG, n = 33); 2) obese children with healthy periodontium (OH, n = 32); 3) normal weight children with gingivitis (NWG, n = 32); 4) normal weight children with healthy periodontium (NWH, n = 33). Body mass index (BMI) percentile, probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Resistin and TNF-α were analyzed in GCF and saliva samples by ELISA.


Obese children had higher BMI percentiles than normal weight children (p < 0.0001). PPD, GI, PI, GCF volume, GCF, and salivary resistin and TNF-α levels were similar between obese and normal weight children (P > 0.05). OG and NWG subgroups had significantly higher GI, PI, GCF volume, GCF resistin total amounts, and salivary resistin concentrations but lower GCF resistin and TNF-α concentrations than OH and NWH (P < 0.0001 for all). GCF resistin total amounts were positively correlated with GI, PI, and GCF TNF-α total amounts (P < 0.05).


To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluated the levels of resistin in GCF and saliva of children. Obesity is not associated with GCF and salivary resistin and TNF-α levels in children in the presence of gingival inflammation.


cytokine(s); gingival crevicular fluid; gingivitis; obesity; saliva


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