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J Immunol. 2018 May 15;200(10):3372-3382. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1701284. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Multiple Homozygous Variants in the STING-Encoding TMEM173 Gene in HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.
2
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Center of Excellence for Health Immunity and Infections, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; and.
5
Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark; trinmoge@rm.dk.
6
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

Abstract

Among HIV-infected individuals, long-term nonprogressor (LTNP) patients experience slow CD4 T cell decline and almost undetectable viral load for several years after primary acquisition of HIV. Type I IFN has been suggested to play a pathogenic role in HIV pathogenesis, and therefore diminished IFN responses may underlie the LTNP phenotype. In this study, we examined the presence and possible immunological role of multiple homozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) encoding gene TMEM173 involved in IFN induction and T cell proliferation in HIV LTNP patients. We identified LTNPs through the Danish HIV Cohort and performed genetic analysis by Sanger sequencing, covering the R71H-G230A-R293Q (HAQ) single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TMEM173 This was followed by investigation of STING mRNA and protein accumulation as well as innate immune responses and proliferation following STING stimulation and infection with replication-competent HIV in human blood-derived cells. We identified G230A-R293Q/G230A-R293Q and HAQ/HAQ homozygous TMEM173 variants in 2 out of 11 LTNP patients. None of the 11 noncontrollers on antiretroviral treatment were homozygous for these variants. We found decreased innate immune responses to DNA and HIV as well as reduced STING-dependent inhibition of CD4 T cell proliferation, particularly in the HAQ/HAQ HIV LTNP patients, compared with the age- and gender-matched noncontrollers on antiretroviral treatment. These findings suggest that homozygous HAQ STING variants contribute to reduced inhibition of CD4 T cell proliferation and a reduced immune response toward DNA and HIV, which might result in reduced levels of constitutive IFN production. Consequently, the HAQ/HAQ TMEM173 genotype may contribute to the slower disease progression characteristic of LTNPs.

PMID:
29632140
DOI:
10.4049/jimmunol.1701284

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