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Anesth Essays Res. 2018 Jan-Mar;12(1):1-6. doi: 10.4103/aer.AER_217_17.

Anesthetic Considerations for Carotid Endarterectomy: A Postgraduate Educational Review.

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Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.


Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has shown a significant benefit in preventing ipsilateral stroke when it is compared to conservative management. Surgical morbidity and mortality must be kept to a minimum to achieve this benefit. Neurological status of the CEA patients can be monitored easily during regional anesthesia depending on the awake testing (neurocognitive assessment) method of the CEA patients. In addition, specific parameters can help us to monitor and to predict the neurological status of the CEA patients during the procedures such as regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) and middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) changes. We conducted a computerized literature search involving humans, published in English until December 2017, and indexed through Medical Databases; MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. We reviewed articles performed for prospective and other types of studies related to CEA procedures and techniques which can predict patient's status during the procedure. Searching relevant articles and discussing the results to allow meaningful rate comparison, and to conclude a result view which benefits the CEA patients and the medical staff during the CEA procedures. In total, studies observed cerebral rSO2 and MCAv have significant value during CEA procedures. Patients with neurological symptoms during the procedures showed changes of cerebral rSO2 and MCAv more than the patients without neurological symptoms. Mentioned parameters (cerebral rSO2 and MCAv) showed significant increasing right after the procedure. Mostly, CEA surgeries under local anesthesia were observed, for monitoring patients' consciousness status and comparing it to patients who undergo general anesthesia, to view the reliability of these techniques during CEA procedures, and to predict and avoid intraoperative neurological symptoms.


Awake testing; carotid endarterectomy; cerebral monitoring; cerebral oximetry; transcranial Doppler

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