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Acta Biomater. 2018 May;72:407-423. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.03.049. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

In vitro evaluation of MgSr and MgCaSr alloys via direct culture with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Author information

1
Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
2
Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
3
Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
5
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn.
6
Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Electronic address: huinan.liu@ucr.edu.

Abstract

Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have been widely investigated as the most promising biodegradable metals to replace conventional non-degradable metals for temporary medical implant applications. New Mg alloys have been developed for medical applications in recent years; and the concept of alloying Mg with less-toxic elements have aroused tremendous interests due to the promise to address the problems associated with rapid degradation of Mg without compromising its cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. Of particular interests for orthopedic/spinal implant applications are the additions of calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr) into Mg matrix because of their beneficial properties for bone regeneration. In this study, degradation and cytocompatibility of four binary MgSr alloys (Mg-xSr, x = 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) and four ternary MgCaSr alloys (Mg-1Ca-xSr, x = 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) were investigated and compared via direct culture with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The influence of the alloy composition on the degradation rates were studied and compared. Moreover, the cellular responses to the binary MgSr alloys and the ternary MgCaSr alloys were comparatively evaluated; and the critical factors influencing BMSC behaviors were discussed. This study screened the degradability and in vitro cytocompatibility of the binary MgSr alloys and the ternary MgCaSr alloys. Mg-1Sr, Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr and Mg-1Ca-1Sr alloys are recommended for further in vivo studies toward clinical translation due to their best overall performances in terms of degradation and cytocompatibility among all the alloys studied in the present work.

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:

Traditional Mg alloys with slower degradation often contain aluminum or rare earth elements as alloying components, which raised safety and regulatory concerns. To circumvent unsafe elements, nutrient elements such as calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr) were selected to create Mg-Sr binary alloys and Mg-Ca-Sr ternary alloys to improve the safety and biocompatibility of bioresorbable Mg alloys for medical implant applications. In this study, in vitro degradation and cellular responses to four binary Mg-xSr alloys and four ternary Mg-1Ca-xSr alloys with increasing Sr content (up to 2 wt%) were evaluated in direct culture with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The roles of Sr and Ca in tuning the alloy microstructure, degradation behaviors, and BMSC responses were collectively compared in the BMSC direct culture system for the first time. The most promising alloys were identified and recommended for further in vivo studies toward clinical translation.

KEYWORDS:

Binary MgSr alloys; Biodegradable magnesium alloys; Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs); In vitro direct culture method; Ternary MgCaSr alloys

PMID:
29626698
DOI:
10.1016/j.actbio.2018.03.049
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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