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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Jun;140:236-244. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.03.057. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

The Better Diabetes Diagnosis (BDD) study - A review of a nationwide prospective cohort study in Sweden.

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Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University/Clinical Research Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Department of Pediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Pediatrics, Stockholm, Sweden.
Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Pediatrics, Lund, Sweden.


The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Sweden is one of the highest in the world. However, the possibility of other types of diabetes must also be considered. In addition, individuals with T1D constitute a heterogeneous group. A precise classification of diabetes is a prerequisite for optimal outcome. For precise classification, knowledge on the distribution of genetic factors, biochemical markers and clinical features in individuals with new onset of diabetes is needed. The Better Diabetes Diagnosis (BDD), is a nationwide study in Sweden with the primary aim to facilitate a more precise classification and diagnosis of diabetes in order to enable the most adequate treatment for each patient. Secondary aims include identification of risk factors for diabetes-related co-morbidities. Since 2005, data on almost all children and adolescents with newly diagnosed diabetes in Sweden are prospectively collected and including heredity of diabetes, clinical symptoms, levels of C peptide, genetic analyses and detection of autoantibodies. Since 2011, analyses of HLA profile, autoantibodies and C peptide levels are part of clinical routine in Sweden for all pediatric patients with suspected diagnosis of diabetes. In this review, we present the methods and main results of the BDD study so far and discuss future aspects.

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