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Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2018 Apr;21(4):234-239. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2017.0369. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Longitudinal Associations in Youth Involvement as Victimized, Bullying, or Witnessing Cyberbullying.

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1 Department of Psychology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota.
2 Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto , Toronto, Canada .


Although cyberbullying has been linked to cyber victimization, it is unknown whether witnessing cyberbullying impacts and is impacted by experiences of cyberbullying and victimization. In the current study, we examine the frequency of youth involved as victimized, bullying, and witnessing cyberbullying and how these experiences are associated across three academic years. Participants comprised 670 Canadian students who began the longitudinal study in grades 4, 7, or 10 at Time 1 (T1). Cyber witnessing represented the largest role of youth involvement in cyberbullying. Cyber witnessing was positively associated with both cyberbullying and victimization. Cyber victimization at T1 was positively associated with cyber witnessing at T2, which was positively related to both cyberbullying and victimization at T3. Findings highlight the significance of addressing the role of cyber witnesses in cyberbullying prevention and intervention efforts.


cyber victimization; cyber witnessing; cyberbullying; longitudinal

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