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SAGE Open Med. 2018 Mar 26;6:2050312118762042. doi: 10.1177/2050312118762042. eCollection 2018.

Altered immunoglobulins (A and G) in Ghanaian patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
Department of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.
Department of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Department of Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
Central Laboratory Sub-BMC unit, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.
Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.



Elevated immunoglobulin levels have been strongly linked to the development and progression of inflammatory disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate circulating immunoglobulin levels and to identify other metabolic factors that influence humoral immune response among Ghanaian subjects with type 2 diabetes.


A comparative cross-sectional study conducted at the National Diabetes Management and Research Center, Accra. Eighty persons with type 2 diabetes were age-matched with 78 controls. Immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M; interleukin 6; fasting blood glucose; glycated hemoglobin; and lipid parameter concentrations were measured. Blood pressure, anthropometry and body composition indices were also assessed.


Median immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G (g/L) levels were higher in the case group compared with controls (0.89 vs 0.74, p = 0.043; 7.58 vs 7.29, p < 0.001). Immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A and interleukin 6 levels in the case cohort, respectively, associated weakly with fasting blood glucose (r = 0.252, p = 0.001; r = 0.170, p = 0.031; r = 0.296, p = 0.001). There were positive correlations within the control group for immunoglobulin A versus interleukin 6 (r = 0.366, p = 0.001) and within the case group for glycated hemoglobin versus interleukin 6 (r = 0.190, p = 0.020).


Our data suggest that humoral immune response is altered in subjects with type 2 diabetes and that serum immunoglobulin levels could serve as useful biomarkers in the investigation and management of diabetes mellitus.


Immunoglobulin; interleukin; type 2 diabetes

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of conflicting interests: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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