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J Food Prot. 2018 May;81(5):762-768. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-403.

Validation of a Sequential Hide-On Bob Veal Carcass Antimicrobial Intervention Composed of a Hot Water Wash and Lactic Acid Spray in Combination with Scalding To Control Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Surrogates.

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1 Department of Animal Sciences and Agricultural Education, Fresno State University, Fresno, California 93740.
2 Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843.
3 Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583.
4 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038.
5 Food Science Institute, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.
6 Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583.


Scalding of hide-on bob veal carcasses with or without standard scalding chemical agents typically used for hogs, followed by an 82.2°C hot water wash and lactic acid spray (applied at ambient temperature) before chilling, was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in reducing Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli surrogate populations. A five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant, nonpathogenic E. coli surrogates was used to inoculate hides of veal carcasses immediately after exsanguination (target inoculation level of 7.0 log CFU/100 cm2). For carcasses receiving no scalding treatments, spraying with 82.2°C water as a final wash resulted in a 4.5-log CFU/100 cm2 surrogate reduction, and an additional 1.2-log CFU/100 cm2 reduction was achieved by spraying with 4.5% lactic acid before chilling. Scalding hide-on carcasses in 60°C water (no chemicals added) for 4 min in a traditional hog scalding tank resulted in a 2.1-log CFU/100 cm2 reduction in surrogate levels, and a subsequent preevisceration 82.2°C water wash provided an additional 2.9-log CFU/100 cm2 reduction. Spraying a 4.5% solution of lactic acid onto scalded, hide-on carcasses (after the 82.2°C water wash) resulted in a minimal additional reduction of 0.4 log CFU/100 cm2. Incorporation of scalding chemicals into the scald water resulted in a 4.1-log CFU/100 cm2 reduction (1.9 log CFU/100 cm2 greater than scalding without chemicals) in the surrogate population, and the first 82.2°C wash provided an additional 2.5-log CFU/100 cm2 reduction. Application of antimicrobial interventions did not affect the carcass temperature decline during chilling, the pH decline, or the color characteristics of the ribeye or the flank of the bob veal carcasses.


Antimicrobial interventions; Bob veal; Escherichia coli; Hide-on carcasses; Lactic acid; Scalding; Surrogate

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