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Sci Rep. 2018 Apr 4;8(1):5622. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-24023-9.

Toxigenic effects of two benthic diatoms upon grazing activity of the sea urchin: morphological, metabolomic and de novo transcriptomic analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121, Napoli, Italy.
2
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant'Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126, Napoli, Italy.
3
Bio-Organic Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry-CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, Naples, 80078, Italy.
4
Unità di Farmacologia Sperimentale, Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione G. Pascale", IRCCS, Napoli, Italy.
5
Center of Villa Dohrn Ischia-Benthic Ecology, Department of Integrative Marine Ecology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, P.ta S. Pietro, Ischia, Naples, Italy.
6
Department of Integrative Marine Ecology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121, Napoli, Italy.
7
Unit Marine Resources for Research, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy.
8
Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121, Napoli, Italy. maria.costantini@szn.it.

Abstract

Diatoms are unicellular algae playing a key role as photosynthetic organisms in the world's ocean food webs. The chemical ecology of planktonic diatoms is well documented, but few studies have reported on the effects of benthic diatoms on their consumers, also due to difficulties in the collection, quantification and massive culturing of benthic species. Here for the first time we investigate the effects of feeding on two abundantly occurring benthic diatoms, Nanofrustulum shiloi and Cylindrotheca closterium, isolated from the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, on the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Adult P. lividus were fed for one month on diets of either one of the two diatoms and on the green alga Ulva rigida, used as a feeding control. By combining morphological, metabolomic and de novo transcriptomic approaches, we demonstrate toxigenic effect on embryos generated by females fed with these benthic diatoms. Furthermore, chemical analysis reveal the presence of polyunsaturated aldehydes only for N. shiloi, and a high production of other oxylipins (cytotoxic compounds on their grazers and on cancer cell lines) for both diatoms, including some additional peaks not correlated to the canonic oxylipins commonly observed in planktonic diatoms. These findings open new perspectives in the study of diatom secondary metabolites influencing their grazers.

PMID:
29618786
PMCID:
PMC5884808
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-018-24023-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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