Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Sep 1;187(9):1871-1879. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy067.

Causal Model of the Association of Social Support With Antepartum Depression: A Marginal Structural Modeling Approach.

Author information

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
AsociaciĆ³n Civil Proyectos en Salud, Lima, Peru.
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicados, Lima, Peru.


We used marginal structural models to evaluate associations of social support with antepartum depression in late pregnancy, if everyone had had high social support both before pregnancy and during early pregnancy, compared with having low social support at one of the 2 time points or low social support at both time points. In 2012-2014, pregnant Peruvian women (n = 3,336) were recruited into a prospective cohort study (at a mean gestational age of 9 weeks). A follow-up interview (n = 2,279) was conducted (at 26-28 weeks of gestation). Number of available support providers and satisfaction with social support were measured using Sarason Social Support Questionnaire-6. Depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Low number of support providers at both time points was associated with increased risk of depression (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.34). The association for low satisfaction at both time points was marginally significant (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99). Depression risk was not significantly higher for women who reported high social support at one of the 2 time points. Our study reinforces the importance of assessing social support before and during pregnancy and underscores the need for future interventions targeted at increasing the number of support providers to prevent antepartum depression.

[Available on 2019-09-01]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center