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Cell Rep. 2018 Apr 3;23(1):227-238.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.03.050.

Driver Fusions and Their Implications in the Development and Treatment of Human Cancers.

Collaborators (725)

Caesar-Johnson SJ, Demchok JA, Felau I, Kasapi M, Ferguson ML, Hutter CM, Sofia HJ, Tarnuzzer R, Wang Z, Yang L, Zenklusen JC, Zhang JJ, Chudamani S, Liu J, Lolla L, Naresh R, Pihl T, Sun Q, Wan Y, Wu Y, Cho J, DeFreitas T, Frazer S, Gehlenborg N, Getz G, Heiman DI, Kim J, Lawrence MS, Lin P, Meier S, Noble MS, Saksena G, Voet D, Zhang H, Bernard B, Chambwe N, Dhankani V, Knijnenburg T, Kramer R, Leinonen K, Liu Y, Miller M, Reynolds S, Shmulevich I, Thorsson V, Zhang W, Akbani R, Broom BM, Hegde AM, Ju Z, Kanchi RS, Korkut A, Li J, Liang H, Ling S, Liu W, Lu Y, Mills GB, Ng KS, Rao A, Ryan M, Wang J, Weinstein JN, Zhang J, Abeshouse A, Armenia J, Chakravarty D, Chatila WK, de Bruijn I, Gao J, Gross BE, Heins ZJ, Kundra R, La K, Ladanyi M, Luna A, Nissan MG, Ochoa A, Phillips SM, Reznik E, Sanchez-Vega F, Sander C, Schultz N, Sheridan R, Sumer SO, Sun Y, Taylor BS, Wang J, Zhang H, Anur P, Peto M, Spellman P, Benz C, Stuart JM, Wong CK, Yau C, Hayes DN, Parker JS, Wilkerson MD, Ally A, Balasundaram M, Bowlby R, Brooks D, Carlsen R, Chuah E, Dhalla N, Holt R, Jones SJM, Kasaian K, Lee D, Ma Y, Marra MA, Mayo M, Moore RA, Mungall AJ, Mungall K, Robertson AG, Sadeghi S, Schein JE, Sipahimalani P, Tam A, Thiessen N, Tse K, Wong T, Berger AC, Beroukhim R, Cherniack AD, Cibulskis C, Gabriel SB, Gao GF, Ha G, Meyerson M, Schumacher SE, Shih J, Kucherlapati MH, Kucherlapati RS, Baylin S, Cope L, Danilova L, Bootwalla MS, Lai PH, Maglinte DT, Van Den Berg DJ, Weisenberger DJ, Auman JT, Balu S, Bodenheimer T, Fan C, Hoadley KA, Hoyle AP, Jefferys SR, Jones CD, Meng S, Mieczkowski PA, Mose LE, Perou AH, Perou CM, Roach J, Shi Y, Simons JV, Skelly T, Soloway MG, Tan D, Veluvolu U, Fan H, Hinoue T, Laird PW, Shen H, Zhou W, Bellair M, Chang K, Covington K, Creighton CJ, Dinh H, Doddapaneni H, Donehower LA, Drummond J, Gibbs RA, Glenn R, Hale W, Han Y, Hu J, Korchina V, Lee S, Lewis L, Li W, Liu X, Morgan M, Morton D, Muzny D, Santibanez J, Sheth M, Shinbrot E, Wang L, Wang M, Wheeler DA, Xi L, Zhao F, Hess J, Appelbaum EL, Bailey M, Cordes MG, Ding L, Fronick CC, Fulton LA, Fulton RS, Kandoth C, Mardis ER, McLellan MD, Miller CA, Schmidt HK, Wilson RK, Crain D, Curley E, Gardner J, Lau K, Mallery D, Morris S, Paulauskis J, Penny R, Shelton C, Shelton T, Sherman M, Thompson E, Yena P, Bowen J, Gastier-Foster JM, Gerken M, Leraas KM, Lichtenberg TM, Ramirez NC, Wise L, Zmuda E, Corcoran N, Costello T, Hovens C, Carvalho AL, de Carvalho AC, Fregnani JH, Longatto-Filho A, Reis RM, Scapulatempo-Neto C, Silveira HCS, Vidal DO, Burnette A, Eschbacher J, Hermes B, Noss A, Singh R, Anderson ML, Castro PD, Ittmann M, Huntsman D, Kohl B, Le X, Thorp R, Andry C, Duffy ER, Lyadov V, Paklina O, Setdikova G, Shabunin A, Tavobilov M, McPherson C, Warnick R, Berkowitz R, Cramer D, Feltmate C, Horowitz N, Kibel A, Muto M, Raut CP, Malykh A, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Barrett W, Devine K, Fulop J, Ostrom QT, Shimmel K, Wolinsky Y, Sloan AE, De Rose A, Giuliante F, Goodman M, Karlan BY, Hagedorn CH, Eckman J, Harr J, Myers J, Tucker K, Zach LA, Deyarmin B, Hu H, Kvecher L, Larson C, Mural RJ, Somiari S, Vicha A, Zelinka T, Bennett J, Iacocca M, Rabeno B, Swanson P, Latour M, Lacombe L, Têtu B, Bergeron A, McGraw M, Staugaitis SM, Chabot J, Hibshoosh H, Sepulveda A, Su T, Wang T, Potapova O, Voronina O, Desjardins L, Mariani O, Roman-Roman S, Sastre X, Stern MH, Cheng F, Signoretti S, Berchuck A, Bigner D, Lipp E, Marks J, McCall S, McLendon R, Secord A, Sharp A, Behera M, Brat DJ, Chen A, Delman K, Force S, Khuri F, Magliocca K, Maithel S, Olson JJ, Owonikoko T, Pickens A, Ramalingam S, Shin DM, Sica G, Van Meir EG, Zhang H, Eijckenboom W, Gillis A, Korpershoek E, Looijenga L, Oosterhuis W, Stoop H, van Kessel KE, Zwarthoff EC, Calatozzolo C, Cuppini L, Cuzzubbo S, DiMeco F, Finocchiaro G, Mattei L, Perin A, Pollo B, Chen C, Houck J, Lohavanichbutr P, Hartmann A, Stoehr C, Stoehr R, Taubert H, Wach S, Wullich B, Kycler W, Murawa D, Wiznerowicz M, Chung K, Edenfield WJ, Martin J, Baudin E, Bubley G, Bueno R, De Rienzo A, Richards WG, Kalkanis S, Mikkelsen T, Noushmehr H, Scarpace L, Girard N, Aymerich M, Campo E, Giné E, Guillermo AL, Van Bang N, Hanh PT, Phu BD, Tang Y, Colman H, Evason K, Dottino PR, Martignetti JA, Gabra H, Juhl H, Akeredolu T, Stepa S, Hoon D, Ahn K, Kang KJ, Beuschlein F, Breggia A, Birrer M, Bell D, Borad M, Bryce AH, Castle E, Chandan V, Cheville J, Copland JA, Farnell M, Flotte T, Giama N, Ho T, Kendrick M, Kocher JP, Kopp K, Moser C, Nagorney D, O'Brien D, O'Neill BP, Patel T, Petersen G, Que F, Rivera M, Roberts L, Smallridge R, Smyrk T, Stanton M, Thompson RH, Torbenson M, Yang JD, Zhang L, Brimo F, Ajani JA, Gonzalez AMA, Behrens C, Bondaruk J, Broaddus R, Czerniak B, Esmaeli B, Fujimoto J, Gershenwald J, Guo C, Lazar AJ, Logothetis C, Meric-Bernstam F, Moran C, Ramondetta L, Rice D, Sood A, Tamboli P, Thompson T, Troncoso P, Tsao A, Wistuba I, Carter C, Haydu L, Hersey P, Jakrot V, Kakavand H, Kefford R, Lee K, Long G, Mann G, Quinn M, Saw R, Scolyer R, Shannon K, Spillane A, Stretch J, Synott M, Thompson J, Wilmott J, Al-Ahmadie H, Chan TA, Ghossein R, Gopalan A, Levine DA, Reuter V, Singer S, Singh B, Tien NV, Broudy T, Mirsaidi C, Nair P, Drwiega P, Miller J, Smith J, Zaren H, Park JW, Hung NP, Kebebew E, Linehan WM, Metwalli AR, Pacak K, Pinto PA, Schiffman M, Schmidt LS, Vocke CD, Wentzensen N, Worrell R, Yang H, Moncrieff M, Goparaju C, Melamed J, Pass H, Botnariuc N, Caraman I, Cernat M, Chemencedji I, Clipca A, Doruc S, Gorincioi G, Mura S, Pirtac M, Stancul I, Tcaciuc D, Albert M, Alexopoulou I, Arnaout A, Bartlett J, Engel J, Gilbert S, Parfitt J, Sekhon H, Thomas G, Rassl DM, Rintoul RC, Bifulco C, Tamakawa R, Urba W, Hayward N, Timmers H, Antenucci A, Facciolo F, Grazi G, Marino M, Merola R, de Krijger R, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Piché A, Chevalier S, McKercher G, Birsoy K, Barnett G, Brewer C, Farver C, Naska T, Pennell NA, Raymond D, Schilero C, Smolenski K, Williams F, Morrison C, Borgia JA, Liptay MJ, Pool M, Seder CW, Junker K, Omberg L, Dinkin M, Manikhas G, Alvaro D, Bragazzi MC, Cardinale V, Carpino G, Gaudio E, Chesla D, Cottingham S, Dubina M, Moiseenko F, Dhanasekaran R, Becker KF, Janssen KP, Slotta-Huspenina J, Abdel-Rahman MH, Aziz D, Bell S, Cebulla CM, Davis A, Duell R, Elder JB, Hilty J, Kumar B, Lang J, Lehman NL, Mandt R, Nguyen P, Pilarski R, Rai K, Schoenfield L, Senecal K, Wakely P, Hansen P, Lechan R, Powers J, Tischler A, Grizzle WE, Sexton KC, Kastl A, Henderson J, Porten S, Waldmann J, Fassnacht M, Asa SL, Schadendorf D, Couce M, Graefen M, Huland H, Sauter G, Schlomm T, Simon R, Tennstedt P, Olabode O, Nelson M, Bathe O, Carroll PR, Chan JM, Disaia P, Glenn P, Kelley RK, Landen CN, Phillips J, Prados M, Simko J, Smith-McCune K, VandenBerg S, Roggin K, Fehrenbach A, Kendler A, Sifri S, Steele R, Jimeno A, Carey F, Forgie I, Mannelli M, Carney M, Hernandez B, Campos B, Herold-Mende C, Jungk C, Unterberg A, von Deimling A, Bossler A, Galbraith J, Jacobus L, Knudson M, Knutson T, Ma D, Milhem M, Sigmund R, Godwin AK, Madan R, Rosenthal HG, Adebamowo C, Adebamowo SN, Boussioutas A, Beer D, Giordano T, Mes-Masson AM, Saad F, Bocklage T, Landrum L, Mannel R, Moore K, Moxley K, Postier R, Walker J, Zuna R, Feldman M, Valdivieso F, Dhir R, Luketich J, Pinero EMM, Quintero-Aguilo M, Carlotti CG Jr, Dos Santos JS, Kemp R, Sankarankuty A, Tirapelli D, Catto J, Agnew K, Swisher E, Creaney J, Robinson B, Shelley CS, Godwin EM, Kendall S, Shipman C, Bradford C, Carey T, Haddad A, Moyer J, Peterson L, Prince M, Rozek L, Wolf G, Bowman R, Fong KM, Yang I, Korst R, Rathmell WK, Fantacone-Campbell JL, Hooke JA, Kovatich AJ, Shriver CD, DiPersio J, Drake B, Govindan R, Heath S, Ley T, Van Tine B, Westervelt P, Rubin MA, Lee JI, Aredes ND, Mariamidze A.

Abstract

Gene fusions represent an important class of somatic alterations in cancer. We systematically investigated fusions in 9,624 tumors across 33 cancer types using multiple fusion calling tools. We identified a total of 25,664 fusions, with a 63% validation rate. Integration of gene expression, copy number, and fusion annotation data revealed that fusions involving oncogenes tend to exhibit increased expression, whereas fusions involving tumor suppressors have the opposite effect. For fusions involving kinases, we found 1,275 with an intact kinase domain, the proportion of which varied significantly across cancer types. Our study suggests that fusions drive the development of 16.5% of cancer cases and function as the sole driver in more than 1% of them. Finally, we identified druggable fusions involving genes such as TMPRSS2, RET, FGFR3, ALK, and ESR1 in 6.0% of cases, and we predicted immunogenic peptides, suggesting that fusions may provide leads for targeted drug and immune therapy.

KEYWORDS:

RNA; cancer; fusion; gene fusions; translocation

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