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Front Neurosci. 2018 Mar 19;12:172. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00172. eCollection 2018.

Endocannabinoid System and Migraine Pain: An Update.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Neurophysiology of Integrative Autonomic Systems, Headache Science Centre, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.
2
Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
3
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Abstract

The trigeminovascular system (TS) activation and the vasoactive release from trigeminal endings, in proximity of the meningeal vessels, are considered two of the main effector mechanisms of migraine attacks. Several other structures and mediators are involved, however, both upstream and alongside the TS. Among these, the endocannabinoid system (ES) has recently attracted considerable attention. Experimental and clinical data suggest indeed a link between dysregulation of this signaling complex and migraine headache. Clinical observations, in particular, show that the levels of anandamide (AEA)-one of the two primary endocannabinoid lipids-are reduced in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with chronic migraine (CM), and that this reduction is associated with pain facilitation in the spinal cord. AEA is produced on demand during inflammatory conditions and exerts most of its effects by acting on cannabinoid (CB) receptors. AEA is rapidly degraded by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme and its levels can be modulated in the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) by FAAH inhibitors. Inhibition of AEA degradation via FAAH is a promising therapeutic target for migraine pain, since it is presumably associated to an increased availability of the endocannabinoid, specifically at the site where its formation is stimulated (e.g., trigeminal ganglion and/or meninges), thus prolonging its action.

KEYWORDS:

FAAH inhibitors; endocannabinoid system; inflammation; migraine; trigeminal hyperalgesia

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