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Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Apr 4;7(1):56. doi: 10.1038/s41426-018-0058-5.

Ranavirus genotypes in the Netherlands and their potential association with virulence in water frogs (Pelophylax spp.).

Author information

1
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3584 CL, The Netherlands.
2
MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK.
3
Reptile, Amphibian and Fish Conservation the Netherlands (RAVON), Nijmegen, 6525 ED, The Netherlands.
4
Dutch Wildlife Health Centre (DWHC), Utrecht, 3584 CL, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Etology, Wildlife and Laboratory Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico city, 04510, Mexico.
6
Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR) of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, 8200 AB, The Netherlands.
7
Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3584 CL, The Netherlands.
8
Gupta Strategists, Ophemert, 4060 GA, The Netherlands.
9
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3584 CL, The Netherlands. m.h.verheije@uu.nl.

Abstract

Ranaviruses are pathogenic viruses for poikilothermic vertebrates worldwide. The identification of a common midwife toad virus (CMTV) associated with massive die-offs in water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) in the Netherlands has increased awareness for emerging viruses in amphibians in the country. Complete genome sequencing of 13 ranavirus isolates collected from ten different sites in the period 2011-2016 revealed three CMTV groups present in distinct geographical areas in the Netherlands. Phylogenetic analysis showed that emerging viruses from the northern part of the Netherlands belonged to CMTV-NL group I. Group II and III viruses were derived from the animals located in the center-east and south of the country, and shared a more recent common ancestor to CMTV-amphibian associated ranaviruses reported in China, Italy, Denmark, and Switzerland. Field monitoring revealed differences in water frog host abundance at sites where distinct ranavirus groups occur; with ranavirus-associated deaths, host counts decreasing progressively, and few juveniles found in the north where CMTV-NL group I occurs but not in the south with CMTV-NL group III. Investigation of tandem repeats of coding genes gave no conclusive information about phylo-geographical clustering, while genetic analysis of the genomes revealed truncations in 17 genes across CMTV-NL groups II and III compared to group I. Further studies are needed to elucidate the contribution of these genes as well as environmental variables to explain the observed differences in host abundance.

PMID:
29615625
PMCID:
PMC5882854
DOI:
10.1038/s41426-018-0058-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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