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Environ Health. 2018 Apr 3;17(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s12940-018-0376-z.

Childhood and adolescent phenol and phthalate exposure and the age of menarche in Latina girls.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
2
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
3
Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
4
Institute of Maternal and Child Research, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
5
Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. k.michels@ucla.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The age of menarche has been associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, as well as cancer risk. The decline in menarcheal age over the past century may be partially attributable to increased exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

METHODS:

We assessed the influence of 26 phenol and phthalate biomarkers on the timing of menarche in a longitudinal cohort of Chilean girls. These EDCs were quantified in urine collected prior to the onset of breast development (Tanner 1; B1), and during adolescence (Tanner 4; B4). Multivariable accelerated failure time (AFT) models were used to analyze associations between biomarker concentrations and the age of menarche adjusting for body mass index (BMI) Z-score and maternal education, accounting for within-subject correlation.

RESULTS:

Several biomarkers were significantly associated with the age at menarche; however, these associations were dependent on the timing of biomarker assessment. A log(ng/ml) increase in B1 concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate biomarkers was associated with later menarche (hazard ratio (HR): 0.77; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.98), whereas higher B1 concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol and benzophenone-3 were associated with earlier menarche (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.27; HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29, respectively). Elevated B4 concentrations of monomethyl phthalate were similarly associated with earlier menarche (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.53). The impact of monoethyl phthalate and triclosan concentrations on pubertal timing were significantly modified by BMI Z-score. Higher monoethyl phthalate and triclosan concentrations were associated with earlier menarche among overweight or obese girls, but not among those that were normal weight.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study identifies modulation of sexual maturation by specific EDC biomarkers in Latina girls.

KEYWORDS:

Endocrine disrupting chemicals; Menarche; Phenols; Phthalates; Puberty

PMID:
29615064
PMCID:
PMC5883544
DOI:
10.1186/s12940-018-0376-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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