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DNA Cell Biol. 2018 Jun;37(6):560-573. doi: 10.1089/dna.2018.4141. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis During Palatal Fusion Reveals the Potential Mechanism of Enhancer Methylation Regulating Epithelial Mesenchyme Transformation.

Author information

1
1 Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College , Shantou, China .
2
2 Department of Infectious Diseases, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College , Shantou, China .
3
3 Department of Translational Medicine Center, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College , Shantou, China .

Abstract

Epithelial mesenchyme transformation (EMT) of the medial edge epithelium (MEE) is the crucial process during palatal fusion. This work is aimed to elucidate the enhancer regulatory mechanism by genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of EMT during palatal fusion. Over 800 million clean reads, 325 million enzyme reads, and 234 million mapping reads were generated. The mapping rate was 68.85-74.32%, which included differentially methylated 17299 CCGG sites and 2363 CCWGG sites (pā€‰<ā€‰0.05, log2FC >1). Methylated sites in intron and intergenic regions were more compared to other regions of all DNA elements. GO and KEGG analysis indicated that differential methylation sites related to embryonic palatal fusion genes (HDAC4, TCF7L2, and PDGFRB) at the enhancer were located on CCWGG region of non-CpG islands. In addition, the results showed that the enhancer for HDAC4 was hypermethylated, whereas the enhancers for TCF7L2 and PDGFRB were hypomethylated. The methylation status of enhancer regions of HDAC4, PDGFRB, and TCF7L2, involved in the regulation of the EMT during palatal fusion, may enlighten the development of novel epigenetic biomarkers in the treatment of cleft palate.

KEYWORDS:

DNA methylation; EMT; MethylRAD; cleft palate; enhancer

PMID:
29608334
DOI:
10.1089/dna.2018.4141
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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